Art Deco (also art deco or even art deco) was a popular design movement from 1920 to 1939 (whose influence extends to the 1950s in some countries) that influenced the decorative arts such as architecture, interior design, and graphic and industrial design also to the visual arts such as fashion, painting, printmaking, sculpture and film.
After the 1900 Universal Exhibition in Paris, several French artists ( Hector Guimard , Eugène Grasset , Raoul Lachenal , Paul Follot , Maurice Dufrene , and Emile Decour ) formed a formal group dedicated to the decorative arts of the art. In 1925 organized the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts) in Paris , and they called themselves modern; in fact, the term Art Deco was coined in the retrospective entitled “Les Annes 25″, held in Paris at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (Museum of Decorative Arts) from 3 March to 16 May 1966 , the term is hence a shortened form of the French word décoratif. In English the tilde often suppressed and “deco” is written. In Spanish, the RAE has normalized as art deco, with the accent on the ‘e’.
This movement is, in a sense, an amalgam of many different styles and movements of the early twentieth century and, unlike the art nouveau , is inspired by First Vanguards. The influences come from constructivism , cubism , futurism , art nouveau own, which evolves, and the rationalist style of the Bauhaus school . Progressive archaeological discoveries in the Ancient Egypt also marked his mark on certain hard lines and solidity of the forms of art deco, akin to the monumental presence and strong elements in his compositions.
As age style machine, used innovations of time for forms: streamlines product of modern aviation, electric lighting, the radio, the ocean liner and the skyscraper. These design influences were expressed in fractionated, crystalline forms, with the presence of Cubist blocks or rectangles and the use of symmetry. The color drew on the experiences of Fauvism ; trapezoids, facetamientos, zigzags and an important geometric forms are common to art deco.
Corresponding to their influences machinists, art deco is also characterized by the materials you prefer and use, such as aluminum, stainless steel, lacquer, inlaid wood, sharkskin (shagreen), and zebra skin. The use of bold typography, serif or sans- serif , faceting and straight or broken or fret (as opposed to the sinuous curves and naturalistic art nouveau), chevron patterns (chevron) and shaped ornament sunburst are typical of Art Deco. Certain patterns of ornament have been in well dissimilar applications: from designing shoes for ladies until radiator grills, interior design for theaters and skyscrapers as the Chrysler Building .
Art Deco peaked in the 1920s . Though many design movements have political or philosophical roots or intentions, Art Deco was almost purely decorative, so it is considered a bourgeois style. Despite the eclecticism of its formal and stylistic influences, Art Deco is solid and has a clear identity. There is a historicism or an anachronism; is true to its time and hints at the futuristic concept of the Industrial Revolution . Its significance revolves around the progress, the system, the city and the urban, the machinery. Elegant, functional and modernist, art deco was an improvement on the art nouveau, this time successful in generating a new set of chords with the problematic forms and imagery of his time.
Art Deco was an opulent style, and exaggeration is attributed to reaction to the forced austerity product of the First World War . Simultaneously an increasingly economic depression and the ghost of the approach of the Second World War , there was an intense desire for escapism. People enjoyed the pleasures of life and art deco during the era of jazz .
The Art Deco movement shown in the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts (1925) on the Esplanade des Invalides in Paris made such an impression on visitors, which is reproduced in great detail in New York, Brussels, Tokyo, Sao Paulo, Casablanca, Saigon, Phnom Phen, Chicago, Belgrade, among many other cities.
In New York’s Rockefeller Center and the Chrysler Building are just two samples, in Rio de Janeiro Corcovado Christ , and after them the cities mentioned were transformed quickly. In Mexico Cuernavaca, the Condesa and other suburbs mentioned by Malcolm Lowry in Under the Volcano follows the example in Colombia the city of Manizales burned in 1925 was rebuilt with the expertise of the architects of the time coffee imported by the emerging class and after another all cities of the world with his corner regenerated Art Deco, modern, provocative, futuristic.
The movement was losing patronage in the metropolis European and U.S. long after it reached a massive introduction to the point of being used to represent false pretenses luxury. Finally, the style would fall into decline, given the austerity imposed by World War II.
In other countries such as India , New Zealand , Cuba , Guatemala , Argentina , Mexico , Ecuador , Philippines and Venezuela , became a gateway to Modernism and continued to be used well until the 1950s . In Latin America can be found during this period, several exponents Art Deco, for example, the Argentine José Fioravanti .
A resurgence of interest in Art Deco came from explorations of graphic design in the 1980s . Their association with film noir in film and charm of the glamor of the 1930s led to a new use of this type of expression in the late 1980 ad for parts jewelry and fashion world and decorating hotels like Fairmont Hotel and the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City .
Miami Beach ( United States ) has a vast collection of buildings deco, with about thirty blocks of hotels and residential buildings from the 20s to 40s. In 1979, the historic Art Deco Miami Beach district was included in the National Register of Historic Places . Most buildings were restored and repainted in its tones pastel originals.
Rinaldi Palace , located in the northeast corner of Avenue July 18 and Pza Independencia , Montevideo
Bullocks Wilshire in Los Angeles
The Cemetery of Azul , a masterpiece of Francisco Salamone
Amphitheatre Napier (New Zealand) .
New India Assurance Building , 1936, Bombay ( India )
Los Angeles also has an abundance of art deco architecture, especially on Wilshire Boulevard , an artery that underwent a major construction boom during the 20s. Notable examples include the Bullocks Wilshire and the Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre , built respectively in 1929 and 1931. Both buildings have recently been restored.
Some of the best surviving examples of art deco architecture and art are in Havana ( Cuba ). The Bacardi Building is known for its unique style, which reflects the Art Deco classics. The stylish residences, office buildings, hotels and many other types of decorative art, furniture and utensils in public buildings and private homes. Was applied
Another country with many examples of a rich art deco architecture is Brazil , especially in Goiânia and cities like Cipo ( Bahia ), Iraí ( Rio Grande do Sul ) and Rio de Janeiro , especially in Copacabana . Also in the Brazilian Northeast – notably in small towns like Campina Grande in the state of Paraiba – there are a significant number of art deco buildings, a group that has been called “Sertanejo Art Deco” by their particular architectural features. The reason which this style had so much coverage in Brazil is that coincided with the rapid growth and radical economic changes introduced in the country 1930.
The art deco also had great success in the big cities of Argentina and Uruguay , especially in the area of the Rio de la Plata , cosmopolitan soul and always very influenced by European developments. In Buenos Aires had its boom in the second half of the 20s, with important buildings designed by the innovative architect Alejandro Virasoro (his most memorable works are the Casa del Teatro and The Equitable del Plata ). The Edificio Kavanagh , one of the icons of the city, boasts a very typical Art Deco stepped volumes, but is almost completely devoid of ornamentation, and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires are other examples of large, occupying an entire block with stepped walls. In several cities in the Province of Buenos Aires , the architect Francisco Salamone made a wide variety of buildings of a particular style, combining art deco with Italian Futurism , perhaps unique. As a particular case, it stands in the city of Rosario the Palacio Minetti , surmounted by two bronze statues.
Also in Montevideo there are several notable examples of Art Deco architecture, from the Palacio Rinaldi (Avenue July 18 839/841 Plaza Independencia esq.), and are easily accessible by performing a circuit within the city center: the Palacio Díaz ( Avda July 18, 1333, between Yaguarón and Ejido) Tapié Palace (1402 Constituent esq. Santiago de Chile), Lux Building (1661 Constituent esq. José E. Rodó), Parma Building (July 18, 1645 Avda esq. Minas ).
Fair Park in Dallas ( Texas ), remains one of the largest collections of Art Deco structures. Much of the Art Deco heritage in Tulsa , Oklahoma , belongs to the second oil boom. Houston (Texas) has a few buildings standing, as the City Hall , the JPMorgan Chase Building , the Ezekiel W. Cullen Building and the 1940 Air Terminal Museum , but many have disappeared by the real estate development. In Beaumont , the Jefferson County Courthouse , built in 1931, is one of the few Art Deco buildings still standing in this city. The Kyle Block , a shop in downtown Beaumont, is a good example of architecture deco zigzag.
Napier in New Zealand , was rebuilt in Art Deco style after being destroyed by the earthquake in Hawke’s Bay on 3 February of 1931 . Although a few buildings Art Deco were replaced with more contemporary structures during the 1960s to 1990, much of the city center remained intact long enough to be recognized as architecturally unique, and since the 90s has been restored and protected . In 2007, Napier was nominated for World Heritage Site , and was nominated the first cultural site in New Zealand
The Clock Tower Square Hastings.
Hastings (New Zealand) was also rebuilt in Art Deco style after the earthquake in Hawke’s Bay, and numerous buildings survive from that era.
In London, the former Arsenal Stadium wearing his famous East Stand facade. Still stands in the old clubhouse Arsenal FC at Highbury (Islington), which was abandoned in the summer of 2006. Opened in October 1936 , the structure was recently listed at Grade II and transformed into apartment building. William Bennie , the man who developed the project, applied art deco in the final design, which was seen as one of the most opulent and impressive in world football stadiums. The London Underground is also recognized by many stations have in their art deco illustrations.
Mumbai ( India ) is the second city in number of Art Deco buildings after Miami .
In China , at least sixty art deco buildings were designed by Hungarian architect Laszlo Hudec , and survive in downtown Shanghai .
Kansas City has its ” Power and Light Building “, finished in 1931. This building is a great example of the Great Depression and its impact on the art deco building. The original plans called for a twin tower to be built to the west. However, he never made due to budgetary problems. Consequently, this tower is 145 meters west his bare hand, no windows. Other examples of Art Deco buildings in Kansas City include Municipal Auditorium , the Jackson County Courthouse , the City Hall and the building 909 Walnut .
Cincinnati ( Ohio ) has its Union Terminal , a rail passenger station of Art Deco style which was completed in 1933. After the fall of the railroad as a means of transportation, most of the building was used for other purposes. It now houses the Cincinnati Museum Center , which receives over a million visitors annually, and is the 17th most visited museum in the United States. The city also has the Carew Tower , an art deco skyscrapers of 49 homes built in 1931.
In 2005, he began the restoration project to larger residences in the United States, art deco buildings New Jersey . The Jersey City Medical Center , with 56,550 m² surface (a National Historic Site) was transformed into a residential enclave, and in 2009 completed three of the many buildings on the site.
In Indonesia , the most important buildings of the flow time of the Dutch East Indies is in the big cities of Java . Bandung is a special case, since it has one of the largest collections of Art Deco buildings of the 20s standing around the world, thanks to the remarkable work of many architects and Dutch designers, including Albert Aalbers , adding the impressionist style with its Art Deco design Denis Bank (1936) and renewal of Savoy Homann Hotel (1939 ) and Thomas Karsten , Henri Maclaine-Pont , J. Gerber and CPW Schoemaker . The building Nederlandsche Handel Maatschappij (1929), now Museum Bank Mandiri , in J. of Bryun , AP Smiths and C. Van de Linde and station Jakarta Kota (1929), designed by Frans Johan Louwrens Ghijsels are cases of art deco standing Jakarta .
The Manila Metropolitan Theater , located at P. Burgos Street in Manila , is one of the few cases of Art Deco in the Philippines .
Another important example of Art Deco is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Brussels , Belgium . Its architect, Albert Van Huffel , won First Prize in Architecture Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925.
In Spain you can find many examples of Art Deco style. A good example is the Gran Vía of Madrid and Paseo de Gracia , in Barcelona, where Art Deco is combined with modernism.
Valencia ( Spain ) has lavish art deco architecture, the economic boom of the wars in which Spain remained neutral. Particularly notorious bathhouse Las Arenas, the building of the Rectory of the University of Valencia and the cinemas Rialto (currently Cinematheque of Generalitat Valenciana ), Capitol (transformed into office building) and Metropol.
Other buildings based on this architecture that stand in the city are the Egyptian House Guardiola Martínez, Roig_Vives Building, the Building Martí-Cortina, the Carlampio Building or the College “Lluis Vives” all designed by the great Valencian architect Francisco Javier Goerlich Lleó , which we most buildings in the transition period between the Art Deco architecture and architectural rationalism in town. We can not leave out the famous Red House Valencian architect Enrique Vidal Viedma is identified as one of the most important in Dutch expressionism with important details regarding Art Deco.
Although outside the big cities Wonders Art Deco can be found, like the many that can be found in Catalonia or the entire Valencia , Cantabria and Asturias , especially in Oviedo , Gijón and Langreo , given the importance of industry and wealth of these cities at the time that this art was fashionable, and to a lesser extent in Andalusia and Murcia, only in the capital and in Cartagena, you can also find a few isolated cases in the rest of the Region of Murcia .
The most important examples of Art Deco in Africa were built in Eritrea during the Italian period . Many buildings still standing in the capital Asmara , and other cities. Art Deco also abounds in central Casablanca , the economic capital of Morocco .
Finally, one of the most famous cases surviving Art Deco is the famous RMS Queen Mary , currently anchored in retirement in Long Beach , California , as a floating hotel and museum, true memory of the past glories of one of those who were once numerous liners, and art deco period.