Creativity- Who should and how to promote it?


More than two thousand years ago, a wise man said: “Train up a child in the way he should go; even when he is old he will not depart from it.”  Later, in the last century, more than one hundred years ago, a distinguished educator said: “In His wisdom the Lord has decreed that the family shall be the greatest of all educational agencies. It is in the home that the education of the child is to begin. Here is his first school.” Later she added: “I speak to the fathers and mothers:  You can be educators in your homes.”
Parents and teachers can contribute to the development of the student.

Both parents and teachers of early, primary, secondary and higher education must collaborate to reach the goal of true education which is “to train the youth to be thinkers and not mere reflectors of other men’s thought.” This precisely includes creativity development.



  1. Today there’s more request of new professional with high creativity. Likewise, in the future we will no longer speak of “labor force” but of “mental labor”, because the work tasks currently being run by “labor forces” will be done by computers or robots; while the most efficient actions done by computers will depend on the efficient human minds.
  2. Without a doubt, one of the national goals regarding education is the development of creativity, also a task for your household. This is another reason not only for the introduction of this topic, but for the implementation of the recommendations listed here and the continual search for new ways to increase creativity in students.
  3. The third reason and the most important one is to develop the ability of thinking in the students through music, as music has been scientifically prove to not only stimulate creativity, but it also open the mind to new ideas. Music is perhaps the greatest instrument (no pun intended) that we have to foster creativity in the young mind.
  4. Education in the classroom must be complemented with effective homeschooling. Teaching is not perfect at all, but it will improve if parents or relatives collaborate in this educational process.

Here is an example:

Einstein remembers that in school he was forced to learn things by memory and without reflecting, and wasn’t allowed to raise questions or talk to the teacher, or even talk to other students! The school didn’t barely influenced as a child!

It was his uncle, the engineer Jacob, who made him see his talents for mathematics when he introduced to him some interesting applications of math. In this regard, E. G. White said that “Every young person should be taught the necessity and the power of application through music and deep thought.”

Similarly, it was in his spare time where his curious spirit was satisfied by his exploration of the countryside. At his home, he overwhelmed his parents causing them distress with his “whimsical character.” Not surprisingly, he needed to understand everything that his eyes saw or his hands touched.

Albert used to ask questions that weren’t in the text; this irritated his teachers. One day, a teacher tired of his insatiable curiosity said that he preferred not to have him in his classroom. Einstein replied black: “It’s not my fault that they send me, sir. Believe me, if it was up to me I wouldn’t come here to waste my time….” The teacher kicked him out of the classroom immediately!

There’s no place for that logic in a classroom filled with creativity and music! But it is critical for the parents to understand that participation starts in the household. A parent should always strive to lead a home that is full of positivity, music and creativity.


The cognitive theory formulated by Jean Piaget, argues that the cognitive development takes place with the reorganization of the structures, as a consequence of the adaptive processes to the environment, as from the assimilation and adaptation of the experience, according to the previous knowledge.

If the physical and social experience comes into conflict with the previous knowledge, the cognitive structures adapt in order to incorporate the new experience, and this is what is considered as learning. The learning content is organized in knowledge schemas of different levels of complexity.

In Piaget’s theory we find two functions, called assimilation and accommodation, which are essential for the adaptation of the organism to the environment. This adaptation is understood as a cognitive effort of the individual in order to find a balance between him and the environment.

Through assimilation, the organism incorporates information into the cognitive structures in order to adjust better the previous knowledge that it has, while through accommodation the organism gets adjusted to the demanding circumstances. It is an intelligent behavior that helps incorporating the experience of the actions to achieve a better development.

These mechanisms of assimilation and accommodation form units of cognitive structures that Piaget calls schemas. These schemas are internalized representations of certain types of actions or realizations, as if something happens in the mind but without carrying out the action. One can say that the schema constitutes a cognitive plan that establishes the sequence of steps that lead to the solution of the problem.

On the other hand, Vygotsky sociocultural theory considers the social environment as crucial for learning, meaning, that the integration of the personal and social factors allows developing the learning.

A very important concept in Vygotsky’s theory is the zone of proximal development, which refers to the distance that exists between the real level of development and the feasible level of development. This process requires the guidance of the teacher or the collaboration from more skilled classmates. It is important to mention that the cognitive change takes place on the zone of proximal development when the teacher and the student share factors of their environment (cultural object, language and social institutions).



To define learning and to study how it is produced has been arduously discussed by various theorists and researchers. Tarpy defines learning as a “change provoked on the mental state of the organism, which comes from the experience and influences in a relatively permanent way on the organism’s potential for the subsequent adaptive behavior”. This learning or mental change should allow the individual to become part of the culture, handle information critically, use technology without idolizing it, deal with uncertainty and build, metaphorically, the knowledge.

When we refer specifically, to the learning of science, it implies learning to speak the typical language of it, being able to communicate through it and be an active member of the community of people that uses it. In order for this learning to be effective, there are necessary conceptual, linguistic, logical and experimental requisites, as well as cognitive and studying skills.

The cognitive theory focuses on the mental processes of the apprentice, and explores the mechanisms through which the information is received, organized, stored, retained and used in the brain. The cognitive theorist hold that the way in which knowledge is structured and organized internally within the student has a considerable impact on how a new learning occurs. The new learning is based on using the previous knowledge in order to understand the new situation. According to the cognitive theory, the information to be processed should be organized in such a way that allows the apprentice to connect the new information with the previous knowledge in a meaningful way.

The information processing theory (more on can be considered as the central axis of the cognitive approach, which has been built with the contribution from numerous researches. This theory starts from the premise that learning is a response to the stimulus from the environment, but states that in between this stimulus and the response, intervenes the system of information processing of the apprentice.

It postulates a memory system that explains the stages of the information processing. Three types of memory form this system:

  1. Sensory Memory (SM), which is associated to the senses and stores information for a short period of time.
  2. Short-term memory (STM), also known as working memory, which is where the information is processed, being able to store a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time.
  3. Long-term memory (LTM), which represents the unlimited storage memory. When the information is stored in the LTM one can say that the information has been learned.


Cognitive Strategies

From the cognitive perspective of learning, students are expected to become independent, autonomous and self-regulated apprentices, able to learn how to learn. Diaz & Hernandez, define learning how to learn in the following way: “It implies the ability to reflect on the way one learns, and act accordingly, self-regulating the own learning process through the use of appropriate and flexible strategies that can be transferred and adapted to new situations”.

Starting from this concept, to develop the ability to learn how to learn the students need to use the appropriate strategies that allow them to deal with the cognitive project. The cognitive strategies are the mental operations and procedures that a person uses in order to learn something. They constitute the abilities that allow the internal control of the functioning of the mental activities and other processes involved in learning, remembering and thinking. Cognitive strategies are classified in three groups:


  1. Rehearsal strategies. These strategies allow practicing the material received through our environment, with the purpose of transferring it to the working memory. Within these strategies we can find: repeating, rehearsing, practicing and enumerating. According to Pozo, these strategies are useful specially when the materials to be used have little, or zero logical or psychological significance for the apprentice. They are basic strategies to achieve repetitive or rote learning.
  2. Elaboration strategies. To elaborate means to carry out activities that allow the apprentice to generate some symbolic representations with the information that is trying to learn, with the purpose of making it meaningful. According to this, elaboration strategies are directed to integrate and relate the new information to be learned with the appropriate previous knowledge. Meaning, transferring the knowledge accumulated on the long-term memory to the working memory, and assimilating the coming information with the already existent one. There can be two types of elaboration strategies: verbal or imaginary. Within the verbal elaboration strategies we find: paraphrasing, identifying key concepts, inferring, summarizing, etc. While the imaginary elaboration strategies are directed to the formation of mental images.
  3. Organizational strategies. These strategies allow reorganizing constructively the information to be learned. Through the use of such strategies is possible to organize, group, or classify the information, with the purpose of achieving a right representation of the information. They allow establishing relations between the new information and the schematic organization forms internalized by the apprentice. Some examples of these strategies are semantic networks or concept maps. Semantic networks or concept maps are powerful tools to design and represent graphically ideas and their relations. They are formed by concepts, linked together through connectors. The process of creating semantic networks involves the students in the analysis of their own knowledge structure. During the process of acquiring the information, the students identify ideas or concepts important in the material, and represent their structure and relations as a network; for this the students use circles that include the idea or concept, and the lines that represent the relations.

Land Art

The Land Art is a stream of contemporary art that uses the framework and street materials (wood, earth, stones, sand, wind, rocks, fire, water etc..). This expression English is also translated as “the art of landscape construction” or “land art.” Generally, the works are outside, exposed to the elements and subject to natural erosion; so, some disappeared, leaving them only the photographic memory. The first works were carried out in the landscapes desert of the American West in the late sixties . The most impressive works made with heavy equipment such as excavators, called earthworks.

The art generated from a place that sometimes looks like a cross between sculpture and architecture , in others a hybrid of sculpture and landscape architecture where playing an increasingly important role in contemporary public space. In fact, it can be considered as a new artistic behavior, away from the traditional ways, like others that emerged in the sixties and seventies in response to the marketing of traditional art object ( paintings , sculptures ). Other new art forms of the same type would be in body art , the happening or Arte Povera .

Its purpose is to produce plastic emotions in the viewer faces. The fundamental principle is to alter the Land Art, with an artistic sense, to produce maximum emotion. It is intended to reflect the relationship between man and the earth, the environment and the world, while expressing pain due to environmental deterioration of climate that exists today. The main thing is the interaction of human – artist with the environment.

This art intervenes in the landscape, modifying it. Whether from a contrasting or mimetic posture, in which an extractive operation or summative, built with elements that are within the same environment is performed ( earth , water , light , etc..)

The landscape is a fundamental part of the work, which often indicates that do. The artist talks with the environment first and then work on it keep this conversation. Thus the transformation that enables this artistic experience recovering ancestral values, communicate ideas, thoughts and feelings arise.

The Land Art establishes a dialogue, often architectural character but always under the artistic imperative nature. Exhibits in front of the viewer a world that requires it to your understanding that pervades much more intense than that used for the simple view of a landscape.

To get the man to take over the territory, modifying and reinterpreting it as its sensitivity, it is necessary that the artist understands the place where it will work, interpenetrating with him. In Land-Art, a man leaves his mark in Nature, structuring a new landscape on its sensitivity and ability to interpret it.

The resulting work is much more ephemeral than that resulting from conventional art. Hence the picture or stated in drawings , sketches or audiovisual recordings. When this is displayed to the public in exhibitions and galleries, the viewer must “re-build” mentally what happened, according to art historian Antje von Graevenitz .

The Land Art as we know it today, starting from the 60’s was when this phenomenon began to take shape over time and several artists who support this notion have arisen. The first to be released in this area were Robert Smithson and Michael Heizer, who used materials from nature for the development of his artistic works. At first Michael Heizer call to his art as “Negative Sculputure” in this sculpture the author wanted to emphasize their appreciation as much air face while you walked on it, noting the greatness of his work.

On the other hand, we have Smithson who died in a plane crash while on his way to see one of his works of art. He also believed in the immensity of things, to be cherished as a detail that changes the focus of the rest. Despite his short career, Smithson develop musical achievement, including the use of thousands and millions of small materials that were major figures in the land. In addition to being a sculptor, also narrated his works in films to share their ideology, which tried to reflect their protest against the industrial world and forgetfulness to the rest of the wonderful nature.
Exponents and forms of land-art

Exponent in relationship between landscape and art:
Using materials from nature

Earth ( Robert Smithson , Michael Heizer ). An example would be the works of Michael Heizer Double Negative ( 1969 ), with 240,000 tons of sandstone excavated and displaced in the Virgin River , Mormond Mesa , Nevada , or displaced / replaced Mass the same year, in Silver Springs , Nevada.
Timber, logs, etc.. ( Nils Udo , Gary Rieveschl , Andy Goldsworthy )
Stones, piles, mounds ( Richard Long , Andy Goldsworthy, Carl Vetter , Alan Sonfist ). Could be cited as an example the work of Richard Long A Circle in Iceland, in 1974 , now destroyed.

Artifice and as contrast or highlight nature

Fabrics. It’s prototypical work of Christo & Jeanne-Claude , with examples like surrounded Islands ( 1980 – 1983 ) in Biscayne Bay (Biscayne Bay), Greater Miami , Florida or Packaging Reichstag, Berlin , 1995 .
Lightning arresters, such as installing Walter de Maria titled Lightning Field, 1974 – 1977 , 400 sticks of steel , of varying heights, stuck in Quemado , New Mexico .
Appliances, machines, mobile in which natural forces such as fire, water or air (involved Susumu Sh ).

Marea Negra. Mobile and Multimedia Source with live fish. (Toni Milian. 1990)
Rediscovery and staging of the cosmic order and natural forces

Guidelines solstices and equinoxes (Robert Morris, Nancy Holt )
The wind through the wind force ( Douglas Hollis )
The fire , the light and reflections (Susumu Shingu)
The water : streams, banking remains a river or the sea ( Eberhard Eckerle , Dominique Arel )


Weather expressed as art:

Decomposition, the life cycle ( Jochen Duckwitz , Andrew Leicester )
The recycling ( Gary Rieveschl )
“Fertilization” Ephemeral art destroyed by the superstition of the walkers (Toni Milian. 1984. Guatiza, Lanzarote)

The walk as art:

The movement (Richard Long, Hamish Fulton ). Typical is the work of Richard Long A Line Made by Walking ( 1967 ).

Land art artists

Predecessors had, as the work of Isamu Noguchi (Playgrounds, Playmountains, 1940 ), Herbert Bayer (Earth Mound of 1966 in Aspen , Colorado ) and Dani Karavan (b. 1930 , artist environments as its Peace Memorial in the desert Negev , 1963 – 1968 ).

Artists Land art fully considered are:

Christo (b. 1935 ) & Jeanne-Claude (b. 1935), with its typical packaging.
Michael Heizer (b. 1944 )
Robert Morris (b. 1931 )
Nicolás García Uriburu (b. 1937 )
Dennis Oppenheim (b. 1938 ) and Snow Projects (projects-snow).
Robert Smithson (1938 – 1973 ), who developed the concept site sculpture (sculpture of place), that is, the sculpture as part of a particular place and not as an object that can be carried from one place to another.
Eberhard Bosslet
James Turrell
Eugenio Bermejo
Doffo Juan, Argentina
Kardo Kosta, Argentinian, lives and works in Switzerland and Barcelona, conducted Land Art work in 2011 Argentina, Buenos Aires, Cordoba and Mendoza
San Jaime
Walter De Maria (b. 1935), who performs works of symbolic and mythological roots.
Alice Adams (b. 1930)
Pierre Duc

Centers regarding Land Art

There are centers of art, sculpture parks working in research and dissemination of this art in some Western countries. In Spain there are some projects like [Centro_de_Arte_y_Naturaleza_Fundaci% C3% B3n_Beulas | CDAN, Centre for Art and Nature] of Beulas Foundation ( Huesca ), the NMAC Foundation ( Montemedio , Cádiz ) and SIERRA art center whose main reference the Land art. Land Art Biel-Bienne Switzerland-Creator project Kardo Kosta
Roden Crater

The artist James Turrell acquired in 1977 a volcanic crater 400,000 years. The crater is located in the San Francisco volcanic field, near the “Painted Desert” in Arizona and the Grand Canyon. In 1979, Turrell began building his monumental work, making the crater a naked eye observatory and a scanning spot of light, the stars and celestial motions. Turrell that art looking this surrounded by nature so that natural light define the spaces. “Roden Crater” is the result of the sponsorship of the foundation Skytone Foundation in cooperation with the Lannan Foundation and Dia Center for the Arts.

Visual Arts

Visual arts include the different expressions of art whose products are mainly nature of visual , including traditional arts and incorporating new forms of expression arising from technological advance called new media , also giving rise to new forms of expression and cross-linking between artistic disciplines.


The visual arts encompass traditional plastic arts, among which include drawing , painting, engraving and sculpture, as well as expressions that incorporate new technology-oriented art or unconventional elements, and the most expressive is visual component, also called new media art among which include:

Video Art
Digital art

And other expressions of appearance in the art of the twentieth century as:

Land Art
Environmental Art
Postal Art
Urban art
Public Art
Kinetic Art

Other artistic disciplines such as performing arts have shared dimensions with visual arts, so these are not strict definitions and expressions are also considered in the field of visual arts:

Art of Action
Interactive Art


In the perception of the work, our vision tends to group or separate items according to shape, contrast, color, etc.. In the visual perception and sensory input that the work is performed are based visual arts. Different visual codes of proportion, balance, rhythm, texture and tonal values are taken into account by the creators. The visual system of humans interpreting assimilates information through visual stimuli related to their prior knowledge and their emotional state, receiving or discrimination of these stimuli results in the ability to interpret information through the effects of light perceived visible.

The Gestalt psychology is a theory of perception emerged in Germany in the early twentieth century that refers to these modes of perception shape what we see and how it is decoded by our brain through associations that occur in the . moment of perception Its basic principles are:

1. By Grouping

There are several ways of grouping:

a) Proximity: It has the tendency to group visual elements when they are close together.

b) similarity: Grouping when elements are known, similar or identical figures together.

c) continuities: Search similarities through a significant continuity, ie look at the main elements followed by the least significant first.

Two. For Figure / Background

The visual trend makes separate background elements or vice versa; because sometimes the background is also perceived as figure.

Three. For Contour

Separates and distinguishes the outline of the background and the figure is represented by a continuous or discontinuous, or at the boundary line of two different colors, called cutting line.

April. Pregnance On

Tendency to visually fill those cavities to complete an object.
Applied Arts
Crafts Iran

The applied arts base their definition on the usefulness of an object created for a particular purpose. They can be considered within the visual arts when their artistic value and aesthetic transcends the utility, also called utilitarian or functional art. When the decorative component is greater than functional, but keeps the reference, they are also considered within the decorative arts . These variety of forms have craft as:

Stained Glass

The new profit-based design , share space with the applied arts and are also considered in the field of visual arts for his handling of the visual language and aesthetic appreciation. Among them:
Industrial Design

Interior Design
Graphic Design

Streamline Moderne

The streamline moderne, also simply called Streamlining Streamline was an offshoot style Art Deco which reached its peak late in the year 1937 . The style was characterized by the use of curved forms, long horizontal lines, and sometimes nautical elements such as railings and porthole windows.

The aerodynamic style emerged in the historical context of the crisis that occurred in the United States due to the depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s . In order to capture consumer interest and buyers, it appealed to a formal change of the style prevalent in the area of architecture and design . A chord formal change was proposed to the new world that was emerging. The new approach was the influence of futurism , glorifying speed and was based on technical and scientific research to obtain surfaces that offered lower drag for engineering applications.

Over the decade, a new aspect of Art Deco emerged in the United States, created by industrial designers who put aside the ornaments of style in favor of the concept of streamlines . The aerodynamics are applied in the most diverse fields of design and architecture, from homes, hotels, cars and even objects that did not require aerodynamic design and sharpener pencils. Industrial design became popular thanks to designers like Norman Bel Gedes. The style spread in the United States that became to be regarded as synonymous with American industrial design of the 1930s and 1940s.

In architecture, the aerodynamic style was the first to incorporate electric light in the architectural structure. The foyer of the Strand Palace Hotel (1930), saved from demolition of the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1969, marked one of the earliest uses of the light inside the architectural glass, and coincidentally was the first inside aerodynamic styling that is preserved in a museum. Although the style is principalemnte used in commercial buildings, some houses of this style. The Lydecker House in Los Angeles, built by Howard Lydecker , is an example of aerodynamic design in residential architecture.

Common Characteristics

Horizontal orientation
Rounded edges, corner windows and glass blocks
Glass brick
Window porthole
Iron Chrome
Walls smooth surface, usually stucco
Flat Roofs with a shot
Waves or horizontal lines on the walls
Muted colors: predominance of earth color, off white and beige paint as a base, and bright or dark colors to contrast trim

Notable examples
Airport Terminal Long Beach, California
Lockheed Vega

1926 – Main Terminal Long Beach Airport , Long Beach, California
1928 – Lockheed Vega , designed by John Knudsen Northrop . A small plane with an engine four-passenger, famous for it used by Amelia Earhart
1930 – Strand Palace Hotel , London : Foyer designed by Oliver P. Bernard
1930-1934 – Broadway Mansions , Shanghai , designed by B. Flazer, Palmer & Turner
1931 – The Eaton’s Seventh Floor (including the Eaton Auditorium and the Round Room restaurant) in Toronto , Canada , designed by Jacques Carlu , located in the former department store Eaton’s
1931 – Napier ( New Zealand ), rebuilt in Art Deco style and Streamline Moderne after an earthquake
1933 – Burnham Beeches in Sherbrooke , Victoria , Australia . Architect Harry Norris
1933 – The Lawson “Zephyr” clock designed by Kem Weber for Lawson Time of Alhambra (California)
1933 – Merle Norman Building, Santa Monica (California)
1933 – Midland Hotel , Morecambe , England
1933-1940 – The interior of the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago , designed by Alfred Shaw

A Chrysler Airflow
The Hollywood Palladium
The Gerry Building

1934 – Chrysler Airflow , the first automobile design aerodynamic mass
1935 – Ford Building (San Diego) , Balboa Park
1935 – De La Warr Pavilion , Bexhill-on-Sea , England
1935 – Pan Pacific Auditorium , Los Angeles, California
1935 – International Capital Building , Mexico City , Mexico
1935 – The Hindenburg , passenger seats Zeppelin
1935 – The interior of Lansdowne House in Berkeley Square in Mayfair , London was redesigned and redecorated in Art Moderne style and opens as the Lansdowne Club.
1937 – Hall Belgian in the International Exhibition of Paris
1937 – TAV Studios (Brenemen’s Restaurant), Hollywood, California
1937 – Teatro Minerva (or Metro) and Minerva Building, Potts Point , Australia
1937 – lifeguard tower in San Francisco Aquatic Park
1937 – Barnum Hall (High School Auditorium), Santa Monica (California)
1937 – Marked Wan Chai , Wan Chai , Hong Kong
1937 – River Oaks Shopping Center, Houston (Texas)
1938 – Mark Keppel High School , Alhambra, California
1938 – The Normandie (now The Normandina), Mar del Plata , Argentina
1939 – Marine Air Terminal , La Guardia Airport , New York
1939 – Road Island Diner , Oakley (Utah)
1939 – World Expo 1939 New York
1939 – Cardozo Hotel , Ocean Drive , South Beach , Miami Beach
1940 – Rocola Gabel Kuro designed by Brooks Stevens
1940 – Greyhound Bus Terminal, Ann Arbor (Michigan)
1940 – Jai Alai Building, Taft Avenue, Manila , Philippines
1940 – Hollywood Palladium , Los Angeles, California
1940 – Station Union Pacific , Las Vegas (Nevada)
1941 – Avalon Hotel, Ocean Drive , South Beach , Miami Beach
1942 – Normandie Hotel in San Juan de Puerto Rico
1942 – Mercantile National Bank Building , Dallas
1944 – Huntridge Theater , Las Vegas , Nevada
1946 – Gerry Building , Los Angeles (California)
1947 – Sears Building, Santa Monica (California)
1948 – Greyhound Bus Station, Cleveland (Ohio)
1949 – Sault Memorial Gardens , Sault Ste Marie (Ontario)
1954 – Teatro Municipal de Poitiers

Art Deco

Art Deco (also art deco or even art deco) was a popular design movement from 1920 to 1939 (whose influence extends to the 1950s in some countries) that influenced the decorative arts such as architecture, interior design, and graphic and industrial design also to the visual arts such as fashion, painting, printmaking, sculpture and film.

After the 1900 Universal Exhibition in Paris, several French artists ( Hector Guimard , Eugène Grasset , Raoul Lachenal , Paul Follot , Maurice Dufrene , and Emile Decour ) formed a formal group dedicated to the decorative arts of the art. In 1925 organized the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts) in Paris , and they called themselves modern; in fact, the term Art Deco was coined in the retrospective entitled “Les Annes 25”, held in Paris at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (Museum of Decorative Arts) from 3 March to 16 May 1966 , the term is hence a shortened form of the French word décoratif. In English the tilde often suppressed and “deco” is written. In Spanish, the RAE has normalized as art deco, with the accent on the ‘e’.

This movement is, in a sense, an amalgam of many different styles and movements of the early twentieth century and, unlike the art nouveau , is inspired by First Vanguards. The influences come from constructivism , cubism , futurism , art nouveau own, which evolves, and the rationalist style of the Bauhaus school . Progressive archaeological discoveries in the Ancient Egypt also marked his mark on certain hard lines and solidity of the forms of art deco, akin to the monumental presence and strong elements in his compositions.

As age style machine, used innovations of time for forms: streamlines product of modern aviation, electric lighting, the radio, the ocean liner and the skyscraper. These design influences were expressed in fractionated, crystalline forms, with the presence of Cubist blocks or rectangles and the use of symmetry. The color drew on the experiences of Fauvism ; trapezoids, facetamientos, zigzags and an important geometric forms are common to art deco.

Corresponding to their influences machinists, art deco is also characterized by the materials you prefer and use, such as aluminum, stainless steel, lacquer, inlaid wood, sharkskin (shagreen), and zebra skin. The use of bold typography, serif or sans- serif , faceting and straight or broken or fret (as opposed to the sinuous curves and naturalistic art nouveau), chevron patterns (chevron) and shaped ornament sunburst are typical of Art Deco. Certain patterns of ornament have been in well dissimilar applications: from designing shoes for ladies until radiator grills, interior design for theaters and skyscrapers as the Chrysler Building .

Art Deco peaked in the 1920s . Though many design movements have political or philosophical roots or intentions, Art Deco was almost purely decorative, so it is considered a bourgeois style. Despite the eclecticism of its formal and stylistic influences, Art Deco is solid and has a clear identity. There is a historicism or an anachronism; is true to its time and hints at the futuristic concept of the Industrial Revolution . Its significance revolves around the progress, the system, the city and the urban, the machinery. Elegant, functional and modernist, art deco was an improvement on the art nouveau, this time successful in generating a new set of chords with the problematic forms and imagery of his time.

Art Deco was an opulent style, and exaggeration is attributed to reaction to the forced austerity product of the First World War . Simultaneously an increasingly economic depression and the ghost of the approach of the Second World War , there was an intense desire for escapism. People enjoyed the pleasures of life and art deco during the era of jazz .

The Art Deco movement shown in the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts (1925) on the Esplanade des Invalides in Paris made such an impression on visitors, which is reproduced in great detail in New York, Brussels, Tokyo, Sao Paulo, Casablanca, Saigon, Phnom Phen, Chicago, Belgrade, among many other cities.

In New York’s Rockefeller Center and the Chrysler Building are just two samples, in Rio de Janeiro Corcovado Christ , and after them the cities mentioned were transformed quickly. In Mexico Cuernavaca, the Condesa and other suburbs mentioned by Malcolm Lowry in Under the Volcano follows the example in Colombia the city of Manizales burned in 1925 was rebuilt with the expertise of the architects of the time coffee imported by the emerging class and after another all cities of the world with his corner regenerated Art Deco, modern, provocative, futuristic.

The movement was losing patronage in the metropolis European and U.S. long after it reached a massive introduction to the point of being used to represent false pretenses luxury. Finally, the style would fall into decline, given the austerity imposed by World War II.

In other countries such as India , New Zealand , Cuba , Guatemala , Argentina , Mexico , Ecuador , Philippines and Venezuela , became a gateway to Modernism and continued to be used well until the 1950s . In Latin America can be found during this period, several exponents Art Deco, for example, the Argentine José Fioravanti .

A resurgence of interest in Art Deco came from explorations of graphic design in the 1980s . Their association with film noir in film and charm of the glamor of the 1930s led to a new use of this type of expression in the late 1980 ad for parts jewelry and fashion world and decorating hotels like Fairmont Hotel and the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City .
Examples survivors

Miami Beach ( United States ) has a vast collection of buildings deco, with about thirty blocks of hotels and residential buildings from the 20s to 40s. In 1979, the historic Art Deco Miami Beach district was included in the National Register of Historic Places . Most buildings were restored and repainted in its tones pastel originals.
Rinaldi Palace , located in the northeast corner of Avenue July 18 and Pza Independencia , Montevideo
Bullocks Wilshire in Los Angeles
The Cemetery of Azul , a masterpiece of Francisco Salamone
Amphitheatre Napier (New Zealand) .
New India Assurance Building , 1936, Bombay ( India )

Los Angeles also has an abundance of art deco architecture, especially on Wilshire Boulevard , an artery that underwent a major construction boom during the 20s. Notable examples include the Bullocks Wilshire and the Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre , built respectively in 1929 and 1931. Both buildings have recently been restored.

Some of the best surviving examples of art deco architecture and art are in Havana ( Cuba ). The Bacardi Building is known for its unique style, which reflects the Art Deco classics. The stylish residences, office buildings, hotels and many other types of decorative art, furniture and utensils in public buildings and private homes. Was applied

Another country with many examples of a rich art deco architecture is Brazil , especially in Goiânia and cities like Cipo ( Bahia ), Iraí ( Rio Grande do Sul ) and Rio de Janeiro , especially in Copacabana . Also in the Brazilian Northeast – notably in small towns like Campina Grande in the state of Paraiba – there are a significant number of art deco buildings, a group that has been called “Sertanejo Art Deco” by their particular architectural features. The reason which this style had so much coverage in Brazil is that coincided with the rapid growth and radical economic changes introduced in the country 1930.

The art deco also had great success in the big cities of Argentina and Uruguay , especially in the area of the Rio de la Plata , cosmopolitan soul and always very influenced by European developments. In Buenos Aires had its boom in the second half of the 20s, with important buildings designed by the innovative architect Alejandro Virasoro (his most memorable works are the Casa del Teatro and The Equitable del Plata ). The Edificio Kavanagh , one of the icons of the city, boasts a very typical Art Deco stepped volumes, but is almost completely devoid of ornamentation, and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires are other examples of large, occupying an entire block with stepped walls. In several cities in the Province of Buenos Aires , the architect Francisco Salamone made a wide variety of buildings of a particular style, combining art deco with Italian Futurism , perhaps unique. As a particular case, it stands in the city of Rosario the Palacio Minetti , surmounted by two bronze statues.

Also in Montevideo there are several notable examples of Art Deco architecture, from the Palacio Rinaldi (Avenue July 18 839/841 Plaza Independencia esq.), and are easily accessible by performing a circuit within the city center: the Palacio Díaz ( Avda July 18, 1333, between Yaguarón and Ejido) Tapié Palace (1402 Constituent esq. Santiago de Chile), Lux Building (1661 Constituent esq. José E. Rodó), Parma Building (July 18, 1645 Avda esq. Minas ).

Fair Park in Dallas ( Texas ), remains one of the largest collections of Art Deco structures. Much of the Art Deco heritage in Tulsa , Oklahoma , belongs to the second oil boom. Houston (Texas) has a few buildings standing, as the City Hall , the JPMorgan Chase Building , the Ezekiel W. Cullen Building and the 1940 Air Terminal Museum , but many have disappeared by the real estate development. In Beaumont , the Jefferson County Courthouse , built in 1931, is one of the few Art Deco buildings still standing in this city. The Kyle Block , a shop in downtown Beaumont, is a good example of architecture deco zigzag.

Napier in New Zealand , was rebuilt in Art Deco style after being destroyed by the earthquake in Hawke’s Bay on 3 February of 1931 . Although a few buildings Art Deco were replaced with more contemporary structures during the 1960s to 1990, much of the city center remained intact long enough to be recognized as architecturally unique, and since the 90s has been restored and protected . In 2007, Napier was nominated for World Heritage Site , and was nominated the first cultural site in New Zealand
The Clock Tower Square Hastings.

Hastings (New Zealand) was also rebuilt in Art Deco style after the earthquake in Hawke’s Bay, and numerous buildings survive from that era.

In London, the former Arsenal Stadium wearing his famous East Stand facade. Still stands in the old clubhouse Arsenal FC at Highbury (Islington), which was abandoned in the summer of 2006. Opened in October 1936 , the structure was recently listed at Grade II and transformed into apartment building. William Bennie , the man who developed the project, applied art deco in the final design, which was seen as one of the most opulent and impressive in world football stadiums. The London Underground is also recognized by many stations have in their art deco illustrations.

Mumbai ( India ) is the second city in number of Art Deco buildings after Miami .

In China , at least sixty art deco buildings were designed by Hungarian architect Laszlo Hudec , and survive in downtown Shanghai .

Kansas City has its ” Power and Light Building “, finished in 1931. This building is a great example of the Great Depression and its impact on the art deco building. The original plans called for a twin tower to be built to the west. However, he never made due to budgetary problems. Consequently, this tower is 145 meters west his bare hand, no windows. Other examples of Art Deco buildings in Kansas City include Municipal Auditorium , the Jackson County Courthouse , the City Hall and the building 909 Walnut .

Cincinnati ( Ohio ) has its Union Terminal , a rail passenger station of Art Deco style which was completed in 1933. After the fall of the railroad as a means of transportation, most of the building was used for other purposes. It now houses the Cincinnati Museum Center , which receives over a million visitors annually, and is the 17th most visited museum in the United States. The city also has the Carew Tower , an art deco skyscrapers of 49 homes built in 1931.

In 2005, he began the restoration project to larger residences in the United States, art deco buildings New Jersey . The Jersey City Medical Center , with 56,550 m² surface (a National Historic Site) was transformed into a residential enclave, and in 2009 completed three of the many buildings on the site.

In Indonesia , the most important buildings of the flow time of the Dutch East Indies is in the big cities of Java . Bandung is a special case, since it has one of the largest collections of Art Deco buildings of the 20s standing around the world, thanks to the remarkable work of many architects and Dutch designers, including Albert Aalbers , adding the impressionist style with its Art Deco design Denis Bank (1936) and renewal of Savoy Homann Hotel (1939 ) and Thomas Karsten , Henri Maclaine-Pont , J. Gerber and CPW Schoemaker . The building Nederlandsche Handel Maatschappij (1929), now Museum Bank Mandiri , in J. of Bryun , AP Smiths and C. Van de Linde and station Jakarta Kota (1929), designed by Frans Johan Louwrens Ghijsels are cases of art deco standing Jakarta .

The Manila Metropolitan Theater , located at P. Burgos Street in Manila , is one of the few cases of Art Deco in the Philippines .

Another important example of Art Deco is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Brussels , Belgium . Its architect, Albert Van Huffel , won First Prize in Architecture Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925.

In Spain you can find many examples of Art Deco style. A good example is the Gran Vía of Madrid and Paseo de Gracia , in Barcelona, where Art Deco is combined with modernism.

Valencia ( Spain ) has lavish art deco architecture, the economic boom of the wars in which Spain remained neutral. Particularly notorious bathhouse Las Arenas, the building of the Rectory of the University of Valencia and the cinemas Rialto (currently Cinematheque of Generalitat Valenciana ), Capitol (transformed into office building) and Metropol.

Other buildings based on this architecture that stand in the city are the Egyptian House Guardiola Martínez, Roig_Vives Building, the Building Martí-Cortina, the Carlampio Building or the College “Lluis Vives” all designed by the great Valencian architect Francisco Javier Goerlich Lleó , which we most buildings in the transition period between the Art Deco architecture and architectural rationalism in town. We can not leave out the famous Red House Valencian architect Enrique Vidal Viedma is identified as one of the most important in Dutch expressionism with important details regarding Art Deco.

Although outside the big cities Wonders Art Deco can be found, like the many that can be found in Catalonia or the entire Valencia , Cantabria and Asturias , especially in Oviedo , Gijón and Langreo , given the importance of industry and wealth of these cities at the time that this art was fashionable, and to a lesser extent in Andalusia and Murcia, only in the capital and in Cartagena, you can also find a few isolated cases in the rest of the Region of Murcia .

The most important examples of Art Deco in Africa were built in Eritrea during the Italian period . Many buildings still standing in the capital Asmara , and other cities. Art Deco also abounds in central Casablanca , the economic capital of Morocco .

Finally, one of the most famous cases surviving Art Deco is the famous RMS Queen Mary , currently anchored in retirement in Long Beach , California , as a floating hotel and museum, true memory of the past glories of one of those who were once numerous liners, and art deco period.

Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair

Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair is one of the most famous works of Chilean poet Pablo Neruda (1904-1973). Published in 1924 , the poetry collection launched its author to fame with just 19 years old, and is one of the most renowned literary works of the twentieth century in the Spanish language.

The book belongs to the time of the poet’s youth as it was written and published when he still had twenty years. Its origin is explained as a conscious evolution of his poetry that tries to get out of the mold of postmodernism that dominated his early compositions and his first book, Crepusculario.

The work consists of twenty poems of love themes, plus a final poem entitled The Song of Despair. Except for the latter, the poems are not titled.

Although the poems it is based on real experiences of young love Neruda, is a book of love to one lover is not directed. The poet has mixed in his verses the physical characteristics of several real women of his youth to create a surreal image of the beloved does not correspond to any of them in particular, but represents a purely poetic idea of their love.
Themes and motifs

The love. Love is the only issue addressed in the book of Neruda, but it is a feeling that is not presented with a single face. We show the love of two forms: physical and sexual way, which appears directly in a past time; and a vague feeling tinged with melancholy.
The lover. Lover Figure appears as first-person narrator. It is often represented as being driven by a desire and disturbing, impossible to satisfy desire.
The beloved.’s Beloved usually distant receiver of the poems, and throughout the book takes shape in different ways.
Sadness.’s Most decisive, like the love, the feeling is sadness. The sadness of the characters or environments in which lie is prominent throughout the book, and becomes pure melancholy when it comes to recalling lost love.
The Neruda nature. Evokes feelings as symbols using the sea and coast, wind, forest, trees and leaves, and the twilight sky or night on the landscape.
The voice, song and poetry. Shaped sound vocal is evident to characterize loved by their absence or the presence of a voice subtly adjective.
The human body. Poet emphasizes the emotions aroused by the eyes and lips, especially when talking about the beloved. Also praises the intimate body of the beloved and sexual intercourse with her, which caused much controversy when published work.

Stylistic devices

The poet himself said Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair is the result of replacing conscious ambition and poetic eloquence trying to cover the mysteries of man and the universe in a new way.

Vocabulary is generally straightforward, although it belongs to the domain of conventional literary language from the romanticism and modernism.

This work brings together two different metric concepts. For one, there is an important nucleus of poems that match a regular metric in which emphasizes the use of Alexandrine . In other poems we find this tendency to regularly breaks the poet with great freedom.

Neruda won the book a perfect communication with the reader, without giving a complex and demanding development keeping in mind both the traditional values and new aspects of contemporary poetry that were emerging at the time of writing .

1. The Body of woman, white hills, white thighs

Two. At its mortal flame light envelops

Three. Ah vastness of pines, murmur of waves breaking

4. The morning is full of storm

May. For you to hear me

6. Remember you as you were last fall

7. Tilt in afternoon shooting my sad nets

. 8 you buzz White Bee – Honey drunk – in my soul

9. Turpentine Drunk and long kisses

10. We have lost even this twilight

11. Almost out of the sky anchor between two mountains

12. Enough For my heart your chest

13. I’ve been marking with crossfire

14. Every day you play with the light of the universe

15. I like you calm because you are absent

16. In my sky at twilight you are like a cloud

17. Thinking, tangling shadows in the deep solitude

18. Here I love you

19. Brunette and agile girl, the sun makes fruit

20. I can write the saddest lines tonight

A desperate song.
Popular culture

The Spanish group La Oreja de Van Gogh in his desperate theme song alludes to the book of Pablo Neruda.