The cognitive theory formulated by Jean Piaget, argues that the cognitive development takes place with the reorganization of the structures, as a consequence of the adaptive processes to the environment, as from the assimilation and adaptation of the experience, according to the previous knowledge.

If the physical and social experience comes into conflict with the previous knowledge, the cognitive structures adapt in order to incorporate the new experience, and this is what is considered as learning. The learning content is organized in knowledge schemas of different levels of complexity.

In Piaget’s theory we find two functions, called assimilation and accommodation, which are essential for the adaptation of the organism to the environment. This adaptation is understood as a cognitive effort of the individual in order to find a balance between him and the environment.

Through assimilation, the organism incorporates information into the cognitive structures in order to adjust better the previous knowledge that it has, while through accommodation the organism gets adjusted to the demanding circumstances. It is an intelligent behavior that helps incorporating the experience of the actions to achieve a better development.

These mechanisms of assimilation and accommodation form units of cognitive structures that Piaget calls schemas. These schemas are internalized representations of certain types of actions or realizations, as if something happens in the mind but without carrying out the action. One can say that the schema constitutes a cognitive plan that establishes the sequence of steps that lead to the solution of the problem.

On the other hand, Vygotsky sociocultural theory considers the social environment as crucial for learning, meaning, that the integration of the personal and social factors allows developing the learning.

A very important concept in Vygotsky’s theory is the zone of proximal development, which refers to the distance that exists between the real level of development and the feasible level of development. This process requires the guidance of the teacher or the collaboration from more skilled classmates. It is important to mention that the cognitive change takes place on the zone of proximal development when the teacher and the student share factors of their environment (cultural object, language and social institutions).



To define learning and to study how it is produced has been arduously discussed by various theorists and researchers. Tarpy defines learning as a “change provoked on the mental state of the organism, which comes from the experience and influences in a relatively permanent way on the organism’s potential for the subsequent adaptive behavior”. This learning or mental change should allow the individual to become part of the culture, handle information critically, use technology without idolizing it, deal with uncertainty and build, metaphorically, the knowledge.

When we refer specifically, to the learning of science, it implies learning to speak the typical language of it, being able to communicate through it and be an active member of the community of people that uses it. In order for this learning to be effective, there are necessary conceptual, linguistic, logical and experimental requisites, as well as cognitive and studying skills.

The cognitive theory focuses on the mental processes of the apprentice, and explores the mechanisms through which the information is received, organized, stored, retained and used in the brain. The cognitive theorist hold that the way in which knowledge is structured and organized internally within the student has a considerable impact on how a new learning occurs. The new learning is based on using the previous knowledge in order to understand the new situation. According to the cognitive theory, the information to be processed should be organized in such a way that allows the apprentice to connect the new information with the previous knowledge in a meaningful way.

The information processing theory (more on can be considered as the central axis of the cognitive approach, which has been built with the contribution from numerous researches. This theory starts from the premise that learning is a response to the stimulus from the environment, but states that in between this stimulus and the response, intervenes the system of information processing of the apprentice.

It postulates a memory system that explains the stages of the information processing. Three types of memory form this system:

  1. Sensory Memory (SM), which is associated to the senses and stores information for a short period of time.
  2. Short-term memory (STM), also known as working memory, which is where the information is processed, being able to store a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time.
  3. Long-term memory (LTM), which represents the unlimited storage memory. When the information is stored in the LTM one can say that the information has been learned.


Cognitive Strategies

From the cognitive perspective of learning, students are expected to become independent, autonomous and self-regulated apprentices, able to learn how to learn. Diaz & Hernandez, define learning how to learn in the following way: “It implies the ability to reflect on the way one learns, and act accordingly, self-regulating the own learning process through the use of appropriate and flexible strategies that can be transferred and adapted to new situations”.

Starting from this concept, to develop the ability to learn how to learn the students need to use the appropriate strategies that allow them to deal with the cognitive project. The cognitive strategies are the mental operations and procedures that a person uses in order to learn something. They constitute the abilities that allow the internal control of the functioning of the mental activities and other processes involved in learning, remembering and thinking. Cognitive strategies are classified in three groups:


  1. Rehearsal strategies. These strategies allow practicing the material received through our environment, with the purpose of transferring it to the working memory. Within these strategies we can find: repeating, rehearsing, practicing and enumerating. According to Pozo, these strategies are useful specially when the materials to be used have little, or zero logical or psychological significance for the apprentice. They are basic strategies to achieve repetitive or rote learning.
  2. Elaboration strategies. To elaborate means to carry out activities that allow the apprentice to generate some symbolic representations with the information that is trying to learn, with the purpose of making it meaningful. According to this, elaboration strategies are directed to integrate and relate the new information to be learned with the appropriate previous knowledge. Meaning, transferring the knowledge accumulated on the long-term memory to the working memory, and assimilating the coming information with the already existent one. There can be two types of elaboration strategies: verbal or imaginary. Within the verbal elaboration strategies we find: paraphrasing, identifying key concepts, inferring, summarizing, etc. While the imaginary elaboration strategies are directed to the formation of mental images.
  3. Organizational strategies. These strategies allow reorganizing constructively the information to be learned. Through the use of such strategies is possible to organize, group, or classify the information, with the purpose of achieving a right representation of the information. They allow establishing relations between the new information and the schematic organization forms internalized by the apprentice. Some examples of these strategies are semantic networks or concept maps. Semantic networks or concept maps are powerful tools to design and represent graphically ideas and their relations. They are formed by concepts, linked together through connectors. The process of creating semantic networks involves the students in the analysis of their own knowledge structure. During the process of acquiring the information, the students identify ideas or concepts important in the material, and represent their structure and relations as a network; for this the students use circles that include the idea or concept, and the lines that represent the relations.



The cause and effect diagram, or “Ishikawa diagram” named after its creator, it is also known as “fishbone chart”, due to its shape similar to a fish skeleton. It is composed of a box (head), a main line (spine) and 4 or more lines that point towards the main line, forming an angle of aproximately 70º (main fishbones). These have in turn two or three leaning lines (fishbones), and so on and so forth, depending on the degree of complexity of the information.


This tool from the group of the Graphic Organizers allows to organize a series of events or milestones on a certain topic, in a way that one can clearly vizualize the chronological relationship between them.

In order to create a timeline about a specific topic, one should identify the events and the dates (starting and ending dates) in which these occurred; organize the events in a chronological order; select the most important events in order to establish the appropriate time intervals; group the similar events; determine the visualization scale to be used, and organize the events in the diagram.


A big progress in the way of organizing the information, at the beginning of the last century, was the use of the bracket map. In reality, until no long ago they were the only used diagrams. These graphic organizers could be found in the following ways: as bracket diagrams, as hierarchical charts or as a matrix (summarizing chart). Through brackets is possible to represent the relationship between the concepts in a hierarchicall and horizontal way.


A flowchart, is a graphic organizer that allows to represent with some detai the sequence of a process. In other words, is a chart, in which the concepts show a cause-effect relationship or they are displayed as the action is being developed. These charts are very common in electronics, computer studies and mathematics.



The portfolio is a teching, learning and assesments method in which the students provide different types of material through which one can evaluate their abilities within certain discipline or study field. This material gives information about the process followed by the student, allowing him and others to see his efforts and successes in relation to the goals and evaluation criteria previously established.

The portfolio as a learning and teaching method, is based on the theory that sees evaluation as the way students think about their learning. The portfolio responds to two essential aspects of the learning-teaching process, it implies a whole methodology and learning strategy in the interaction between the teacher and the student; and in the other side, it is an evaluation method that allows one to put together and coordinate a combination of elements that work as a proof and provide an assesment close to the reality, which would be hard to get with other, more traditional evaluation methods which provide a more fragmented overview.


From the perspective of knowledge as information processing, specifically focussing on Ausubel’s significant learning, Novak (1988) introduces the concept map as an answer to significant learning.

Chart diagrams. Is a chart in the form of a square or rectangle, divided in rows and columns that allows at first sight to determine the characteristic similarities and differences between related topics; they are generally used to summarize very long topics, that when studied in an isolated way it would not be possible to establish relations between them.

Some of the most commons graphic organizers used, are:


It is a method which has the purpose of synthesizing, and at the same time, relating in a significant way the concepts of a certain topic. These maps show the concepts in a hierarchical way. The most general and inclusive concepts are placed at the beginning, followed by the linking words, that express the relations between the concepts. The reading of the relationship between two concepts, should result in a clause or phrase expressing an idea about the specific topic.


It shows the dependency relations between the ideas of a specific field. The data of a concept map can be moved to a hierarchy chart: the main topic is placed in the upper part, the sub-topics or supporting details (previously found in the boxes)  are placed in the second level; the details that support the sub-topics are placed in the third level, and so on and so forth.

These charts can be useful for the formative evaluation. These representations can be included in the tests, either in the form of items completion (presenting a diagram that needs to be completed in some way) or in the practice tests, in which the students could be asked to draw their own diagram.


The sequence diagram is an useful tool to represent a series of events that have a chronological order or to show the phases of a process.


This method provides a visual representation of analytical thinking, given that invites one to take a close look at the characteristics of a specific object. The main object is placed in the center, or axis of the wheel, and the main characteristics are written in the spokes of the wheel. The number of spokes can vary depending on the number of characteristics that define the object. The wheel can be drawn with a certain number of spokes and then tell the students to leave blank those that they canot fill.


A diagram is the simplified representation of a complex reality. Using it helps to understand, memorize and organize hierarchically the elements, relating them through conceptual links. It is a graphical and logical synthesis, that shows relationships and dependencies between primary and secondary concepts.

It is read from left to right. Once we get deeper into studying a topic and we have understood its meaning, we should create a diagram. This will allow us to access quickly the most significant aspects of the topic, suitably organized according to their importance.


This is a graphic organizer that shows in which way some pieces of information are related to their sub-cathegories. It provides a structure for the concepts and/or facts, created in a way that helps the students learn how to organize and priorize the information. The main concept is placed in the center of the spider map and the outward lines link it with other concepts that support details related to these concepts. The spider map is different from the Concept Map because it doesn’t include linking words that allow clauses between the concepts. It is also different from the mind map because the relationships are hierarchical. These charts are generally used for brainstorming, organizing information and analyzing the contents of a topic or story.


A comprehensive reading implies organizing the information in a way that allows the main ideas to stand out and let the person identify the existing relationships between the different pieces of information. I feel that, for the sake of clarity, it is important to define “idea” as noun that represents a thought or suggestion.

Various ways can be used to represent the information graphically: brainstorming charts, concept maps, diagrams, descriptive map, etc.

A good graphic organizer should inform not only about the relevant ideas, but also about the structure of the text, its construction, and the type of information it contains; whether it refers to descriptions, stories with a specific chronological order, to people with a causal role, or to generalizations accompanied by the corresponding examples, etc.

As long as the model used for the graphic representation is ordered, it facilitates, in the process of acquiring information, the efficient organization and storage of the data.

To create or develop the appropriate graphic organizer for the relational structure of the information of the text we need to work on, we can use as a reference one of the proposed models, or come up with a different one that we consider pertinent.

What’s the purpose of graphic organizers?

  • To compress the information
  • To get into focus the purpose of communication
  • To show the information collected
  • To show the information that still needs to be gathered
  • To locate the key concepts
  • To organize the information in a spatial way
  • To establish relations between ideas
  • To serve as mind maps

What do we need to plan a graphic organizer?

  • To determine the information to be included
  • To determine the information to be omitted
  • To choose a design format in accord with the content
  • To represent the relations between the ideas
  • To be able to express the essential content in the title


BRACE MAP: A synopsis is a summary of the main ideas of a text, exposed in an analytical way and organized in order to show the internal structure of the text. It is also possible to show through this diagram many texts that can be compared. Brace maps can be drawn through brackets which is the usual way, and in which the ideas are written as summaries or sections.

The brace or brackets map is the most appropriate one for those topics with many classifications and it has the advantage of being the most graphic of all, and therefore it facilitates the exercise of visual memory. The biggest disadvantage is that it puts all the text on the right side, making it necessary for the letters to be very small and making the text very compressed.

DIAGRAM: It is a graphic representation of a phenomenon, a fact, a piece of knowledge or a topic expressed through geometric figures. Due to its structure, a diagram facilitates the understanding and memorizing.

To create them, one needs to organize the concepts establishing the most number of relations. The main topic is placed on the middle and from there derive the divisions or secondary concepts. The diagram is used when a topic has secondary concepts that are related.

CONCEPT MAP: It is a graph of concepts that are related through truth values. The concept map is a working tool that helps dealing with concepts and representations. It helps expanding our knowledge on what we already know about a concept or topic; they are graphic representations with hierarchical structures that show how the clauses are related. Geometric figures such as ellipses are generally used to enclose the words or statements.

It is organized in hierarchical levels:


  • The first level represents the topic that will be summarized in the concept map,
  • The second level represents the definition
  • The third level represents the characteristics of the topic
  • The fourth level shows classifications
  • The fifth level shows examples

The basic elements are:

  • The Like regularities in the events or objects that are designed through a term. (Novak)
  • The Is the smallest semantic unit that posses a truth value. It consists of concepts and linking words.
  • The linking words. Words that link the concepts and express the type of relationship between them.

In the concept map, all these elements are related graphically, forming semantic chains, which have meaning.

It is essential to consider that there isn’t only one “right” concept map, the important are the relations between the concepts expressed through the linking words in order to form clauses that form a truth value about the studied object. Therefore, many truth values can be formed around a concept.

Short Guide on the History of Art (part two)


The artistic style of Early Christian art comprises the first five centuries of our era, from the beginning of Christianity to the invasion of the barbarian tribes. That is a crude way to say it, but I lacked a better word even after I searched this website.

In the Occident, Rome is the center and symbol of Christianity, because it was there that the primitive Christians, or early Christians, produced their first artistic works; both architecture and visual arts were to a great extent influenced by the Roman art. The early period of the history of Christianity, as well as that of Christian art, is divided into two distinct stages, separated by the Edict of Milan, issued by Emperor Constantine the Great in 313, which granted Christians the legal right to exercise their faith publicly.

This art is rich in symbolic and expressive meaning. The language is clear and simple so that the believers would understand. The first Christian paintings were obviously done in catacombs, usual gathering places for early Christians.



Art in the Middle Ages is divided in three periods:

Byzantine Art: Starting from the foundation of Constantinople in 330, to the Turkish conquest of 1453. Pictures were painted on flat panels, and they received the name of ‘icons’, the Greek word for ‘image’. First, the pictures portrayed martyr saints; later, they started to depict Jesus Christ and Mary.

Romanesque Art: From the 10th to the 12th century. Reminiscent of the Roman art, it symbolized power and sovereignty.

Gothic Art: The last medieval period, it developed throughout Europe. The paintings were very expressive and the background panels were usually painted in golden leaf.



This movement appeared in the Netherlands and unfolded in the Northern part of Europe in the 14th and the 15th centuries. Its paintings are characterized by bright colors, abundance of symbolic details and rich texture.

The most remarkable painters of the time are Robert Campin, Rogier van der Weyden and Jan Van Eyck.



The focal point of the Renaissance was in Italy. This is also divided in three periods:

The Trecento – 13th to 14th century.

Period of transition between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Giotto di BondoneLamentation (The Mourning of Christ) is an emotionally moving painting.

The Quattrocento – 15th century.

The significance of this period is given by renowned painters, such as Massaccio, Paolo Ucello, Fra Angélico, Sandro Botticelli and others.

BoticelliThe Birth of Venus (1478-1487)

MasaccioThe Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden was the first nude picture, ever since the Greek art period.

The Cinquecento – the 16th century.

The time of the most outstanding painters: Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, Paolo Veronese and others. Art revived in Florence and Rome.

Leonardo Da VinciLa Gioconda (Mona Lisa) (1503-1507)

MichelangeloThe Creation of Adam (1511)

Raphael SanzioSistine Madonna (1512-1513)



1530-1600. Develops sophisticated and refined art, and also enlarges the figures, making them more dynamical.

El GrecoMater Dolorosa (1590?)



This art spread all around Europe. The main themes are religion, mythology and daily life, and the most striking aspect is the dynamism of the figures.

Italy: Guido Reni

France: Nicolás Poussin



The term ‘neoclassicism’ first occurred in the 19th century as a pejorative word used to describe the esthetic movement that reflected in arts the intellectual principles of the Enlightenment. This  movement had occurred in philosophy from the mid-18th century, and then it was trasmitted to all cultural fields.



This art rejects the neoclassical principles and adheres to the baroque values. Its themes are exotic, historical, Oriental or related to landscapes, and it generally uses warm and loose colors.



Was created by a Brotherhood composed of an association of English painters, poets and critics. It was founded in 1848 in London by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. The Brotherhood lasted for only five years, but it influenced English painting until the beginning of the 20th century.

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood : John Everett Millais (painter), Dante Gabriel Rossetti (painter and poet), William Holman Hunt (painter), William Michael Rossetti (critic), Thomas Woolner (sculptor and poet), James Collinson (painter) and Frederic George Stephens (critic).

Artists and personalities associated with the Brotherhood: Ford Madox Brown (painter and illustrator), Edward Burne-Jones (painter and illustrator), Arthur Hughes (painter), Jane Morris (model), William Morris (illustrator and architect), Christina Rossetti (poet), Elizabeth Siddal (painter, poet and model), John William Waterhouse (painter) and Thomas Cooper Gotch (painter).


Short Guide on the History of Art (from Prehistoric Art to Pre-Raphaelism)


This era is divided into two ages, each consisting of several periods, as follows:

  • The Stone Age:
    • Paleolithic: meaning ‘old stone’. It is divided in Lower (a period of exclusively carved stone using bifaces and flakes), Middle, or Older (flakes and burins), and Upper, or Late Paleolithic. Periods of warm weather allowed the development of a culture under the race of the Neanderthals. During Late Paleolithic, the climate turned glacial, and the people who ruled then were the Cro-Magnons. Reindeer were also replaced due to climate warming.
    • Mesolithic: This is the intermediate period between two ages.
    • Neolithic: Meaning ‘new, polished stone’.
    • The Metal Age has two main eras:
      • Bronze Age: from the 25th to the 9th century BC.
      • Iron Age: this age gas been divided into the Hallstatt  and the La Téne periods. While the former seems to have started in the 9th century BC, the latter ended in the 5th BC.

Prehistoric art is not described as a hobby or pastime, but this art recounts some events that have happened; it tells a story of past events. Moreover, it tells us that the main motifs of this art were sorcery, society, animals and, above all, hunting.

These weapons were made from either stones or animal bones. People used hammers also made of stone to make their weapons very sharp tips which would help kill the prey they wanted.


One of the characteristics of Ancient Egypt is its unique art, with monumental works that usually served served as a vehicle for funerary and religious symbolism.

Although the concept of art is rather modern, it is perfectly appropriate for use in Egyptian architecture, sculpture, painting and jewelry making, as many of the works are genuine pieces o art, not mere craftsmanship.

Because the climate of Egypt is dry and the artifacts were buried by the sand of the desert, (or by the owners of the objects, who wanted to also enjoy them in the “afterlife”), many original works of art have reached present times in an acceptable state of conservation, in spite of the wars, the use of monuments as quarries, or the countless times the temples and tombs have been looted.

Egyptian art touches some of the most beautiful themes; one of them is love of nature, and also family is also present in many sculptures.



Painting: had a strictly decorative purpose, and was used to embellish buildings. Lacks perspective and the use of color is very poor: white, blue and red are the dominating hues. As can be seen in decorative mosaics and tiles, it used the tempera painting technique. The main subjects were scenes of war and ritualistic sacrifices, painted in a very realistic manner. There also appear geometrical shapes, people, animals and monsters. Painting was used in home decoration as well. Shadows would not appear in the paintings.

Sculpture: involved life-size replicas of real beings. However, this realism blends with the artist’s subjective mark, who gives his work a symbolical meaning that lies beyond what can be seen with the naked eye. Sculpture is probably the artistic category in which the Mesopotamian world stands out in the most distinctive manner, with its principles, characters, and its way of transposing itself into art. The pattern is the following: hands crossed on the chest, shaved head, while the body is either nude or covered with a mantle. The thematic of Sumerian sculpture was inspired and influenced by the characters of a world dominated by power and religion, and Sumerian art became an expression of that world.

Painting: Mesopotamian art consisted mainly of mosaics.



Painting: All that is left from Greek painting are the names of a few artists; their painting abilities can be recognized only by their ceramic work. Although they did not use many colors, they managed to keep the harmony with just one color. The shades they used in their works were mainly red and black.

Sculpture: Greek sculpture is impossible to explain, but, without a doubt, it was greatly influenced by the Egyptian art. In contrast to Egyptian art, where figures were carved separately, Greek sculpture seemed more dynamic.



This art is divided into two periods:

The Republican period, when Rome became a republic.

The Imperial period, when Rome was a Military Empire.

Sculpture: Is different from Greek art in that Greeks used to carve statues of gods and heroes, while Romans sculpted their political and military leaders, giving them an air of divinity, but keeping true to reality.

Painting: Was more important than sculpture, as it offer the possibility to create images that better reflected reality. The pictures they created were mosaics and frescos.


Land Art

The Land Art is a stream of contemporary art that uses the framework and street materials (wood, earth, stones, sand, wind, rocks, fire, water etc..). This expression English is also translated as “the art of landscape construction” or “land art.” Generally, the works are outside, exposed to the elements and subject to natural erosion; so, some disappeared, leaving them only the photographic memory. The first works were carried out in the landscapes desert of the American West in the late sixties . The most impressive works made with heavy equipment such as excavators, called earthworks.

The art generated from a place that sometimes looks like a cross between sculpture and architecture , in others a hybrid of sculpture and landscape architecture where playing an increasingly important role in contemporary public space. In fact, it can be considered as a new artistic behavior, away from the traditional ways, like others that emerged in the sixties and seventies in response to the marketing of traditional art object ( paintings , sculptures ). Other new art forms of the same type would be in body art , the happening or Arte Povera .

Its purpose is to produce plastic emotions in the viewer faces. The fundamental principle is to alter the Land Art, with an artistic sense, to produce maximum emotion. It is intended to reflect the relationship between man and the earth, the environment and the world, while expressing pain due to environmental deterioration of climate that exists today. The main thing is the interaction of human – artist with the environment.

This art intervenes in the landscape, modifying it. Whether from a contrasting or mimetic posture, in which an extractive operation or summative, built with elements that are within the same environment is performed ( earth , water , light , etc..)

The landscape is a fundamental part of the work, which often indicates that do. The artist talks with the environment first and then work on it keep this conversation. Thus the transformation that enables this artistic experience recovering ancestral values, communicate ideas, thoughts and feelings arise.

The Land Art establishes a dialogue, often architectural character but always under the artistic imperative nature. Exhibits in front of the viewer a world that requires it to your understanding that pervades much more intense than that used for the simple view of a landscape.

To get the man to take over the territory, modifying and reinterpreting it as its sensitivity, it is necessary that the artist understands the place where it will work, interpenetrating with him. In Land-Art, a man leaves his mark in Nature, structuring a new landscape on its sensitivity and ability to interpret it.

The resulting work is much more ephemeral than that resulting from conventional art. Hence the picture or stated in drawings , sketches or audiovisual recordings. When this is displayed to the public in exhibitions and galleries, the viewer must “re-build” mentally what happened, according to art historian Antje von Graevenitz .

The Land Art as we know it today, starting from the 60’s was when this phenomenon began to take shape over time and several artists who support this notion have arisen. The first to be released in this area were Robert Smithson and Michael Heizer, who used materials from nature for the development of his artistic works. At first Michael Heizer call to his art as “Negative Sculputure” in this sculpture the author wanted to emphasize their appreciation as much air face while you walked on it, noting the greatness of his work.

On the other hand, we have Smithson who died in a plane crash while on his way to see one of his works of art. He also believed in the immensity of things, to be cherished as a detail that changes the focus of the rest. Despite his short career, Smithson develop musical achievement, including the use of thousands and millions of small materials that were major figures in the land. In addition to being a sculptor, also narrated his works in films to share their ideology, which tried to reflect their protest against the industrial world and forgetfulness to the rest of the wonderful nature.
Exponents and forms of land-art

Exponent in relationship between landscape and art:
Using materials from nature

Earth ( Robert Smithson , Michael Heizer ). An example would be the works of Michael Heizer Double Negative ( 1969 ), with 240,000 tons of sandstone excavated and displaced in the Virgin River , Mormond Mesa , Nevada , or displaced / replaced Mass the same year, in Silver Springs , Nevada.
Timber, logs, etc.. ( Nils Udo , Gary Rieveschl , Andy Goldsworthy )
Stones, piles, mounds ( Richard Long , Andy Goldsworthy, Carl Vetter , Alan Sonfist ). Could be cited as an example the work of Richard Long A Circle in Iceland, in 1974 , now destroyed.

Artifice and as contrast or highlight nature

Fabrics. It’s prototypical work of Christo & Jeanne-Claude , with examples like surrounded Islands ( 1980 – 1983 ) in Biscayne Bay (Biscayne Bay), Greater Miami , Florida or Packaging Reichstag, Berlin , 1995 .
Lightning arresters, such as installing Walter de Maria titled Lightning Field, 1974 – 1977 , 400 sticks of steel , of varying heights, stuck in Quemado , New Mexico .
Appliances, machines, mobile in which natural forces such as fire, water or air (involved Susumu Sh ).

Marea Negra. Mobile and Multimedia Source with live fish. (Toni Milian. 1990)
Rediscovery and staging of the cosmic order and natural forces

Guidelines solstices and equinoxes (Robert Morris, Nancy Holt )
The wind through the wind force ( Douglas Hollis )
The fire , the light and reflections (Susumu Shingu)
The water : streams, banking remains a river or the sea ( Eberhard Eckerle , Dominique Arel )


Weather expressed as art:

Decomposition, the life cycle ( Jochen Duckwitz , Andrew Leicester )
The recycling ( Gary Rieveschl )
“Fertilization” Ephemeral art destroyed by the superstition of the walkers (Toni Milian. 1984. Guatiza, Lanzarote)

The walk as art:

The movement (Richard Long, Hamish Fulton ). Typical is the work of Richard Long A Line Made by Walking ( 1967 ).

Land art artists

Predecessors had, as the work of Isamu Noguchi (Playgrounds, Playmountains, 1940 ), Herbert Bayer (Earth Mound of 1966 in Aspen , Colorado ) and Dani Karavan (b. 1930 , artist environments as its Peace Memorial in the desert Negev , 1963 – 1968 ).

Artists Land art fully considered are:

Christo (b. 1935 ) & Jeanne-Claude (b. 1935), with its typical packaging.
Michael Heizer (b. 1944 )
Robert Morris (b. 1931 )
Nicolás García Uriburu (b. 1937 )
Dennis Oppenheim (b. 1938 ) and Snow Projects (projects-snow).
Robert Smithson (1938 – 1973 ), who developed the concept site sculpture (sculpture of place), that is, the sculpture as part of a particular place and not as an object that can be carried from one place to another.
Eberhard Bosslet
James Turrell
Eugenio Bermejo
Doffo Juan, Argentina
Kardo Kosta, Argentinian, lives and works in Switzerland and Barcelona, conducted Land Art work in 2011 Argentina, Buenos Aires, Cordoba and Mendoza
San Jaime
Walter De Maria (b. 1935), who performs works of symbolic and mythological roots.
Alice Adams (b. 1930)
Pierre Duc

Centers regarding Land Art

There are centers of art, sculpture parks working in research and dissemination of this art in some Western countries. In Spain there are some projects like [Centro_de_Arte_y_Naturaleza_Fundaci% C3% B3n_Beulas | CDAN, Centre for Art and Nature] of Beulas Foundation ( Huesca ), the NMAC Foundation ( Montemedio , Cádiz ) and SIERRA art center whose main reference the Land art. Land Art Biel-Bienne Switzerland-Creator project Kardo Kosta
Roden Crater

The artist James Turrell acquired in 1977 a volcanic crater 400,000 years. The crater is located in the San Francisco volcanic field, near the “Painted Desert” in Arizona and the Grand Canyon. In 1979, Turrell began building his monumental work, making the crater a naked eye observatory and a scanning spot of light, the stars and celestial motions. Turrell that art looking this surrounded by nature so that natural light define the spaces. “Roden Crater” is the result of the sponsorship of the foundation Skytone Foundation in cooperation with the Lannan Foundation and Dia Center for the Arts.

Visual Arts

Visual arts include the different expressions of art whose products are mainly nature of visual , including traditional arts and incorporating new forms of expression arising from technological advance called new media , also giving rise to new forms of expression and cross-linking between artistic disciplines.


The visual arts encompass traditional plastic arts, among which include drawing , painting, engraving and sculpture, as well as expressions that incorporate new technology-oriented art or unconventional elements, and the most expressive is visual component, also called new media art among which include:

Video Art
Digital art

And other expressions of appearance in the art of the twentieth century as:

Land Art
Environmental Art
Postal Art
Urban art
Public Art
Kinetic Art

Other artistic disciplines such as performing arts have shared dimensions with visual arts, so these are not strict definitions and expressions are also considered in the field of visual arts:

Art of Action
Interactive Art


In the perception of the work, our vision tends to group or separate items according to shape, contrast, color, etc.. In the visual perception and sensory input that the work is performed are based visual arts. Different visual codes of proportion, balance, rhythm, texture and tonal values are taken into account by the creators. The visual system of humans interpreting assimilates information through visual stimuli related to their prior knowledge and their emotional state, receiving or discrimination of these stimuli results in the ability to interpret information through the effects of light perceived visible.

The Gestalt psychology is a theory of perception emerged in Germany in the early twentieth century that refers to these modes of perception shape what we see and how it is decoded by our brain through associations that occur in the . moment of perception Its basic principles are:

1. By Grouping

There are several ways of grouping:

a) Proximity: It has the tendency to group visual elements when they are close together.

b) similarity: Grouping when elements are known, similar or identical figures together.

c) continuities: Search similarities through a significant continuity, ie look at the main elements followed by the least significant first.

Two. For Figure / Background

The visual trend makes separate background elements or vice versa; because sometimes the background is also perceived as figure.

Three. For Contour

Separates and distinguishes the outline of the background and the figure is represented by a continuous or discontinuous, or at the boundary line of two different colors, called cutting line.

April. Pregnance On

Tendency to visually fill those cavities to complete an object.
Applied Arts
Crafts Iran

The applied arts base their definition on the usefulness of an object created for a particular purpose. They can be considered within the visual arts when their artistic value and aesthetic transcends the utility, also called utilitarian or functional art. When the decorative component is greater than functional, but keeps the reference, they are also considered within the decorative arts . These variety of forms have craft as:

Stained Glass

The new profit-based design , share space with the applied arts and are also considered in the field of visual arts for his handling of the visual language and aesthetic appreciation. Among them:
Industrial Design

Interior Design
Graphic Design

Streamline Moderne

The streamline moderne, also simply called Streamlining Streamline was an offshoot style Art Deco which reached its peak late in the year 1937 . The style was characterized by the use of curved forms, long horizontal lines, and sometimes nautical elements such as railings and porthole windows.

The aerodynamic style emerged in the historical context of the crisis that occurred in the United States due to the depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s . In order to capture consumer interest and buyers, it appealed to a formal change of the style prevalent in the area of architecture and design . A chord formal change was proposed to the new world that was emerging. The new approach was the influence of futurism , glorifying speed and was based on technical and scientific research to obtain surfaces that offered lower drag for engineering applications.

Over the decade, a new aspect of Art Deco emerged in the United States, created by industrial designers who put aside the ornaments of style in favor of the concept of streamlines . The aerodynamics are applied in the most diverse fields of design and architecture, from homes, hotels, cars and even objects that did not require aerodynamic design and sharpener pencils. Industrial design became popular thanks to designers like Norman Bel Gedes. The style spread in the United States that became to be regarded as synonymous with American industrial design of the 1930s and 1940s.

In architecture, the aerodynamic style was the first to incorporate electric light in the architectural structure. The foyer of the Strand Palace Hotel (1930), saved from demolition of the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1969, marked one of the earliest uses of the light inside the architectural glass, and coincidentally was the first inside aerodynamic styling that is preserved in a museum. Although the style is principalemnte used in commercial buildings, some houses of this style. The Lydecker House in Los Angeles, built by Howard Lydecker , is an example of aerodynamic design in residential architecture.

Common Characteristics

Horizontal orientation
Rounded edges, corner windows and glass blocks
Glass brick
Window porthole
Iron Chrome
Walls smooth surface, usually stucco
Flat Roofs with a shot
Waves or horizontal lines on the walls
Muted colors: predominance of earth color, off white and beige paint as a base, and bright or dark colors to contrast trim

Notable examples
Airport Terminal Long Beach, California
Lockheed Vega

1926 – Main Terminal Long Beach Airport , Long Beach, California
1928 – Lockheed Vega , designed by John Knudsen Northrop . A small plane with an engine four-passenger, famous for it used by Amelia Earhart
1930 – Strand Palace Hotel , London : Foyer designed by Oliver P. Bernard
1930-1934 – Broadway Mansions , Shanghai , designed by B. Flazer, Palmer & Turner
1931 – The Eaton’s Seventh Floor (including the Eaton Auditorium and the Round Room restaurant) in Toronto , Canada , designed by Jacques Carlu , located in the former department store Eaton’s
1931 – Napier ( New Zealand ), rebuilt in Art Deco style and Streamline Moderne after an earthquake
1933 – Burnham Beeches in Sherbrooke , Victoria , Australia . Architect Harry Norris
1933 – The Lawson “Zephyr” clock designed by Kem Weber for Lawson Time of Alhambra (California)
1933 – Merle Norman Building, Santa Monica (California)
1933 – Midland Hotel , Morecambe , England
1933-1940 – The interior of the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago , designed by Alfred Shaw

A Chrysler Airflow
The Hollywood Palladium
The Gerry Building

1934 – Chrysler Airflow , the first automobile design aerodynamic mass
1935 – Ford Building (San Diego) , Balboa Park
1935 – De La Warr Pavilion , Bexhill-on-Sea , England
1935 – Pan Pacific Auditorium , Los Angeles, California
1935 – International Capital Building , Mexico City , Mexico
1935 – The Hindenburg , passenger seats Zeppelin
1935 – The interior of Lansdowne House in Berkeley Square in Mayfair , London was redesigned and redecorated in Art Moderne style and opens as the Lansdowne Club.
1937 – Hall Belgian in the International Exhibition of Paris
1937 – TAV Studios (Brenemen’s Restaurant), Hollywood, California
1937 – Teatro Minerva (or Metro) and Minerva Building, Potts Point , Australia
1937 – lifeguard tower in San Francisco Aquatic Park
1937 – Barnum Hall (High School Auditorium), Santa Monica (California)
1937 – Marked Wan Chai , Wan Chai , Hong Kong
1937 – River Oaks Shopping Center, Houston (Texas)
1938 – Mark Keppel High School , Alhambra, California
1938 – The Normandie (now The Normandina), Mar del Plata , Argentina
1939 – Marine Air Terminal , La Guardia Airport , New York
1939 – Road Island Diner , Oakley (Utah)
1939 – World Expo 1939 New York
1939 – Cardozo Hotel , Ocean Drive , South Beach , Miami Beach
1940 – Rocola Gabel Kuro designed by Brooks Stevens
1940 – Greyhound Bus Terminal, Ann Arbor (Michigan)
1940 – Jai Alai Building, Taft Avenue, Manila , Philippines
1940 – Hollywood Palladium , Los Angeles, California
1940 – Station Union Pacific , Las Vegas (Nevada)
1941 – Avalon Hotel, Ocean Drive , South Beach , Miami Beach
1942 – Normandie Hotel in San Juan de Puerto Rico
1942 – Mercantile National Bank Building , Dallas
1944 – Huntridge Theater , Las Vegas , Nevada
1946 – Gerry Building , Los Angeles (California)
1947 – Sears Building, Santa Monica (California)
1948 – Greyhound Bus Station, Cleveland (Ohio)
1949 – Sault Memorial Gardens , Sault Ste Marie (Ontario)
1954 – Teatro Municipal de Poitiers

Art Deco

Art Deco (also art deco or even art deco) was a popular design movement from 1920 to 1939 (whose influence extends to the 1950s in some countries) that influenced the decorative arts such as architecture, interior design, and graphic and industrial design also to the visual arts such as fashion, painting, printmaking, sculpture and film.

After the 1900 Universal Exhibition in Paris, several French artists ( Hector Guimard , Eugène Grasset , Raoul Lachenal , Paul Follot , Maurice Dufrene , and Emile Decour ) formed a formal group dedicated to the decorative arts of the art. In 1925 organized the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts) in Paris , and they called themselves modern; in fact, the term Art Deco was coined in the retrospective entitled “Les Annes 25”, held in Paris at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (Museum of Decorative Arts) from 3 March to 16 May 1966 , the term is hence a shortened form of the French word décoratif. In English the tilde often suppressed and “deco” is written. In Spanish, the RAE has normalized as art deco, with the accent on the ‘e’.

This movement is, in a sense, an amalgam of many different styles and movements of the early twentieth century and, unlike the art nouveau , is inspired by First Vanguards. The influences come from constructivism , cubism , futurism , art nouveau own, which evolves, and the rationalist style of the Bauhaus school . Progressive archaeological discoveries in the Ancient Egypt also marked his mark on certain hard lines and solidity of the forms of art deco, akin to the monumental presence and strong elements in his compositions.

As age style machine, used innovations of time for forms: streamlines product of modern aviation, electric lighting, the radio, the ocean liner and the skyscraper. These design influences were expressed in fractionated, crystalline forms, with the presence of Cubist blocks or rectangles and the use of symmetry. The color drew on the experiences of Fauvism ; trapezoids, facetamientos, zigzags and an important geometric forms are common to art deco.

Corresponding to their influences machinists, art deco is also characterized by the materials you prefer and use, such as aluminum, stainless steel, lacquer, inlaid wood, sharkskin (shagreen), and zebra skin. The use of bold typography, serif or sans- serif , faceting and straight or broken or fret (as opposed to the sinuous curves and naturalistic art nouveau), chevron patterns (chevron) and shaped ornament sunburst are typical of Art Deco. Certain patterns of ornament have been in well dissimilar applications: from designing shoes for ladies until radiator grills, interior design for theaters and skyscrapers as the Chrysler Building .

Art Deco peaked in the 1920s . Though many design movements have political or philosophical roots or intentions, Art Deco was almost purely decorative, so it is considered a bourgeois style. Despite the eclecticism of its formal and stylistic influences, Art Deco is solid and has a clear identity. There is a historicism or an anachronism; is true to its time and hints at the futuristic concept of the Industrial Revolution . Its significance revolves around the progress, the system, the city and the urban, the machinery. Elegant, functional and modernist, art deco was an improvement on the art nouveau, this time successful in generating a new set of chords with the problematic forms and imagery of his time.

Art Deco was an opulent style, and exaggeration is attributed to reaction to the forced austerity product of the First World War . Simultaneously an increasingly economic depression and the ghost of the approach of the Second World War , there was an intense desire for escapism. People enjoyed the pleasures of life and art deco during the era of jazz .

The Art Deco movement shown in the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts (1925) on the Esplanade des Invalides in Paris made such an impression on visitors, which is reproduced in great detail in New York, Brussels, Tokyo, Sao Paulo, Casablanca, Saigon, Phnom Phen, Chicago, Belgrade, among many other cities.

In New York’s Rockefeller Center and the Chrysler Building are just two samples, in Rio de Janeiro Corcovado Christ , and after them the cities mentioned were transformed quickly. In Mexico Cuernavaca, the Condesa and other suburbs mentioned by Malcolm Lowry in Under the Volcano follows the example in Colombia the city of Manizales burned in 1925 was rebuilt with the expertise of the architects of the time coffee imported by the emerging class and after another all cities of the world with his corner regenerated Art Deco, modern, provocative, futuristic.

The movement was losing patronage in the metropolis European and U.S. long after it reached a massive introduction to the point of being used to represent false pretenses luxury. Finally, the style would fall into decline, given the austerity imposed by World War II.

In other countries such as India , New Zealand , Cuba , Guatemala , Argentina , Mexico , Ecuador , Philippines and Venezuela , became a gateway to Modernism and continued to be used well until the 1950s . In Latin America can be found during this period, several exponents Art Deco, for example, the Argentine José Fioravanti .

A resurgence of interest in Art Deco came from explorations of graphic design in the 1980s . Their association with film noir in film and charm of the glamor of the 1930s led to a new use of this type of expression in the late 1980 ad for parts jewelry and fashion world and decorating hotels like Fairmont Hotel and the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City .
Examples survivors

Miami Beach ( United States ) has a vast collection of buildings deco, with about thirty blocks of hotels and residential buildings from the 20s to 40s. In 1979, the historic Art Deco Miami Beach district was included in the National Register of Historic Places . Most buildings were restored and repainted in its tones pastel originals.
Rinaldi Palace , located in the northeast corner of Avenue July 18 and Pza Independencia , Montevideo
Bullocks Wilshire in Los Angeles
The Cemetery of Azul , a masterpiece of Francisco Salamone
Amphitheatre Napier (New Zealand) .
New India Assurance Building , 1936, Bombay ( India )

Los Angeles also has an abundance of art deco architecture, especially on Wilshire Boulevard , an artery that underwent a major construction boom during the 20s. Notable examples include the Bullocks Wilshire and the Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre , built respectively in 1929 and 1931. Both buildings have recently been restored.

Some of the best surviving examples of art deco architecture and art are in Havana ( Cuba ). The Bacardi Building is known for its unique style, which reflects the Art Deco classics. The stylish residences, office buildings, hotels and many other types of decorative art, furniture and utensils in public buildings and private homes. Was applied

Another country with many examples of a rich art deco architecture is Brazil , especially in Goiânia and cities like Cipo ( Bahia ), Iraí ( Rio Grande do Sul ) and Rio de Janeiro , especially in Copacabana . Also in the Brazilian Northeast – notably in small towns like Campina Grande in the state of Paraiba – there are a significant number of art deco buildings, a group that has been called “Sertanejo Art Deco” by their particular architectural features. The reason which this style had so much coverage in Brazil is that coincided with the rapid growth and radical economic changes introduced in the country 1930.

The art deco also had great success in the big cities of Argentina and Uruguay , especially in the area of the Rio de la Plata , cosmopolitan soul and always very influenced by European developments. In Buenos Aires had its boom in the second half of the 20s, with important buildings designed by the innovative architect Alejandro Virasoro (his most memorable works are the Casa del Teatro and The Equitable del Plata ). The Edificio Kavanagh , one of the icons of the city, boasts a very typical Art Deco stepped volumes, but is almost completely devoid of ornamentation, and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires are other examples of large, occupying an entire block with stepped walls. In several cities in the Province of Buenos Aires , the architect Francisco Salamone made a wide variety of buildings of a particular style, combining art deco with Italian Futurism , perhaps unique. As a particular case, it stands in the city of Rosario the Palacio Minetti , surmounted by two bronze statues.

Also in Montevideo there are several notable examples of Art Deco architecture, from the Palacio Rinaldi (Avenue July 18 839/841 Plaza Independencia esq.), and are easily accessible by performing a circuit within the city center: the Palacio Díaz ( Avda July 18, 1333, between Yaguarón and Ejido) Tapié Palace (1402 Constituent esq. Santiago de Chile), Lux Building (1661 Constituent esq. José E. Rodó), Parma Building (July 18, 1645 Avda esq. Minas ).

Fair Park in Dallas ( Texas ), remains one of the largest collections of Art Deco structures. Much of the Art Deco heritage in Tulsa , Oklahoma , belongs to the second oil boom. Houston (Texas) has a few buildings standing, as the City Hall , the JPMorgan Chase Building , the Ezekiel W. Cullen Building and the 1940 Air Terminal Museum , but many have disappeared by the real estate development. In Beaumont , the Jefferson County Courthouse , built in 1931, is one of the few Art Deco buildings still standing in this city. The Kyle Block , a shop in downtown Beaumont, is a good example of architecture deco zigzag.

Napier in New Zealand , was rebuilt in Art Deco style after being destroyed by the earthquake in Hawke’s Bay on 3 February of 1931 . Although a few buildings Art Deco were replaced with more contemporary structures during the 1960s to 1990, much of the city center remained intact long enough to be recognized as architecturally unique, and since the 90s has been restored and protected . In 2007, Napier was nominated for World Heritage Site , and was nominated the first cultural site in New Zealand
The Clock Tower Square Hastings.

Hastings (New Zealand) was also rebuilt in Art Deco style after the earthquake in Hawke’s Bay, and numerous buildings survive from that era.

In London, the former Arsenal Stadium wearing his famous East Stand facade. Still stands in the old clubhouse Arsenal FC at Highbury (Islington), which was abandoned in the summer of 2006. Opened in October 1936 , the structure was recently listed at Grade II and transformed into apartment building. William Bennie , the man who developed the project, applied art deco in the final design, which was seen as one of the most opulent and impressive in world football stadiums. The London Underground is also recognized by many stations have in their art deco illustrations.

Mumbai ( India ) is the second city in number of Art Deco buildings after Miami .

In China , at least sixty art deco buildings were designed by Hungarian architect Laszlo Hudec , and survive in downtown Shanghai .

Kansas City has its ” Power and Light Building “, finished in 1931. This building is a great example of the Great Depression and its impact on the art deco building. The original plans called for a twin tower to be built to the west. However, he never made due to budgetary problems. Consequently, this tower is 145 meters west his bare hand, no windows. Other examples of Art Deco buildings in Kansas City include Municipal Auditorium , the Jackson County Courthouse , the City Hall and the building 909 Walnut .

Cincinnati ( Ohio ) has its Union Terminal , a rail passenger station of Art Deco style which was completed in 1933. After the fall of the railroad as a means of transportation, most of the building was used for other purposes. It now houses the Cincinnati Museum Center , which receives over a million visitors annually, and is the 17th most visited museum in the United States. The city also has the Carew Tower , an art deco skyscrapers of 49 homes built in 1931.

In 2005, he began the restoration project to larger residences in the United States, art deco buildings New Jersey . The Jersey City Medical Center , with 56,550 m² surface (a National Historic Site) was transformed into a residential enclave, and in 2009 completed three of the many buildings on the site.

In Indonesia , the most important buildings of the flow time of the Dutch East Indies is in the big cities of Java . Bandung is a special case, since it has one of the largest collections of Art Deco buildings of the 20s standing around the world, thanks to the remarkable work of many architects and Dutch designers, including Albert Aalbers , adding the impressionist style with its Art Deco design Denis Bank (1936) and renewal of Savoy Homann Hotel (1939 ) and Thomas Karsten , Henri Maclaine-Pont , J. Gerber and CPW Schoemaker . The building Nederlandsche Handel Maatschappij (1929), now Museum Bank Mandiri , in J. of Bryun , AP Smiths and C. Van de Linde and station Jakarta Kota (1929), designed by Frans Johan Louwrens Ghijsels are cases of art deco standing Jakarta .

The Manila Metropolitan Theater , located at P. Burgos Street in Manila , is one of the few cases of Art Deco in the Philippines .

Another important example of Art Deco is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Brussels , Belgium . Its architect, Albert Van Huffel , won First Prize in Architecture Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925.

In Spain you can find many examples of Art Deco style. A good example is the Gran Vía of Madrid and Paseo de Gracia , in Barcelona, where Art Deco is combined with modernism.

Valencia ( Spain ) has lavish art deco architecture, the economic boom of the wars in which Spain remained neutral. Particularly notorious bathhouse Las Arenas, the building of the Rectory of the University of Valencia and the cinemas Rialto (currently Cinematheque of Generalitat Valenciana ), Capitol (transformed into office building) and Metropol.

Other buildings based on this architecture that stand in the city are the Egyptian House Guardiola Martínez, Roig_Vives Building, the Building Martí-Cortina, the Carlampio Building or the College “Lluis Vives” all designed by the great Valencian architect Francisco Javier Goerlich Lleó , which we most buildings in the transition period between the Art Deco architecture and architectural rationalism in town. We can not leave out the famous Red House Valencian architect Enrique Vidal Viedma is identified as one of the most important in Dutch expressionism with important details regarding Art Deco.

Although outside the big cities Wonders Art Deco can be found, like the many that can be found in Catalonia or the entire Valencia , Cantabria and Asturias , especially in Oviedo , Gijón and Langreo , given the importance of industry and wealth of these cities at the time that this art was fashionable, and to a lesser extent in Andalusia and Murcia, only in the capital and in Cartagena, you can also find a few isolated cases in the rest of the Region of Murcia .

The most important examples of Art Deco in Africa were built in Eritrea during the Italian period . Many buildings still standing in the capital Asmara , and other cities. Art Deco also abounds in central Casablanca , the economic capital of Morocco .

Finally, one of the most famous cases surviving Art Deco is the famous RMS Queen Mary , currently anchored in retirement in Long Beach , California , as a floating hotel and museum, true memory of the past glories of one of those who were once numerous liners, and art deco period.